Apollo 11 Interview in Spaceflight Magazine

Spaceflight-Cover-2014-12(Widget)From Apollo 11 to ThunderStruck

by Robert Brand

It seems that an interview on my life in the space sector has been published. My good friend Nick Howes from the UK did the interview. It concentrates on my Apollo 11 work at the age of 17. No big deal, but it was pivotal in my life I guess and set the scene for what followed and ultimately the ThunderStruck spacecraft

Spaceflight Vol 56 No 12 – December 2014

The teaser for the interview says:

Nick Howes tells the intriguing story of a boy gripped by space and who went on to play an important part in the Apollo 11 story.

I’m afraid that you will have to buy the magazine to see the story of my contribution to Apollo 11, the entire NASA progam from Apollo 11 to the Shuttle and Voyager encounters and even a major ESA contribution for the Halleys Comet interceptor, Giotto.

A little exchange from Facebook.

  • Robert Brand Seems that this is me:
    Nick Howes tells the intriguing story of a boy gripped by space and who went on to play an important part in the Apollo 11 story.
  • Nick Howes Proud to call you a friend, proud to know you… as you should be proud of all you have done… thanks buddy!
  • Robert Brand … and now building his own spacecraft easily capable of circumnavigating the moon and returning to land on earth. A funny and unexpected ending, given that 3 years ago I had no intention of doing anything like this!
  • Nick Howes As I said “pivotal” in so many ways…
  1. admin says:

    Nick also said:

    “The first of my 4 Spacefest Apollo articles is now out. An interview with Robert Brand who had a pivotal and largely untold role in the Apollo story from Australia. Over the next 4 months, my articles with Rusty Schweickart Jack Jack R. Lousma and Sy Liebergot will also come out, pure golddust was the exact phrase of the magazine editor… as they have all been very wonderful with their take and tales on work they did both on Apollo and since”.

    So get your copy of Spaceflight and read all of Nick’s stories over the next 4 issues – I am just thankful that I did not have to follow any of these powerhouses from the Apollo days. They were at the pointy end of the stick. The only think that I can take comfort in is that of the four of us interviewed, I am the only one building a space craft.

    Just below this story on this page there should be a couple of links to “similar stories” about NASA’s Apollo 11 switching centre in Sydney. My fellow co-workers and I had a lot to do with getting that working and you can catch up a bit of the story there. By he way I met with them for a reunion lunch just a few days ago. It was sweet to see them – mind you most were rather scary when I was doing work experience at the age of 17 when I worked on NASA’s Apollo 11 gear.

Breaking Mach 1, but by How Much?

A Zero Pressure Balloon fill_2610Hitting the Mach.

by Robert Brand

The aim of Project ThunderStruck is hitting Mach 1 and a bit more for good measure. Basically breaking the sound barrier. We may reach Mach 1.5, but that will be very much related to the height we reach with the balloon and few other factors. Project ThunderStruck is about Breaking Mach 1 – anything faster is a bonus.

ThunderStruck will rise to 40Km or more for its record attempt. It will need to use a Zero Pressure Balloon capable of reaching 40Km plus carrying a payload in the region of 20Kg including cameras and electronics on the Balloon.

Thanks to http://hypertextbook.com/facts/JianHuang.shtml for the information below regarding Joe Kittinger’s Record Jump in 1960:

Captain Kittinger’s 1960 report in National Geographic said that he was in free fall from 102,800 (31.333Km) to 96,000 feet (29.26Km) and then experienced no noticeable change in acceleration for an additional 6,000 feet (1.83Km) despite having deployed his stabilization chute.

The article then goes on the mention that he achieved 9/10ths the speed of sound and continued to suggest (with maths) that he would have broken the speed of sound with an additional 1,300 m (4,200 feet) of free fall.

If we assume an average acceleration of 9.70 m/s2, it is a simple matter to determine the altitude at which a skydiver starting at 40 km would break the sound barrier.

 maths to calculate altitude at which the sound barrier is broken

That’s an altitude of about 116,000 feet or 35.36Km. So how fast might we go starting at 40km altitude?

maths to calculate the max speed from altitude

Sorry if the equations are difficult to see – that is the quality from the website.

This is nearly 200 m/s faster than the local speed of sound. At the incredible speeds we’re dealing with, air resistance can not be ignored. A maximum of Mach 1.3 seems very reasonable for a human in a pressure suit compared to the prediction of Mach 1.6.

Given that the altitude of the glider release will be 40Km or more, then a top speed of near Mach 1.5 is possible. If we go higher, then we go faster.

Why is ThunderStruck an Aircraft?

Why is it considered an aircraft if it is in free fall with little to no drag? Simply because it is designed to use the little airflow to stabilise itself. Like and aircraft at lower heights uses its control surfaces for stable flight, ThunderStruck does the same. As you might remember from the jumps in the past by Joe Kittinger and Felix Baumgartner, they had serious trouble controlling spin. ThunderStruck will use the exceedingly thin air to control the spin and other forces acting on the craft during its record breaking dive.

After the dive and breaking the sound barrier, ThunderStruck will pull out of the dive under the control of RC pilot Jason Brand (12 years old) and level off, washing off excess speed. It will then fly to the ground under manual control to land just like any other aircraft.

This piece on Felix Baumgartner from Wikipedia:

203px-Felix_Baumgartner_2013Felix Baumgartner; born 20 April 1969, is an Austrian skydiver, daredevil and BASE jumper. He set the world record for skydiving an estimated 39 kilometres (24 mi), reaching an estimated speed of 1,357.64 km/h (843.6 mph), or Mach 1.25, on 14 October 2012, and became the first person to break the sound barrier without vehicular power on his descent.

Baumgartner’s most recent project was Red Bull Stratos, in which he jumped to Earth from a helium balloon in the stratosphere on 14 October 2012. As part of this project, he set the altitude record for a manned balloon flight,[8] parachute jump from the highest altitude, and greatest free fall velocity

The launch was originally scheduled for 9 October 2012, but was aborted due to adverse weather conditions. Launch was rescheduled and the mission instead took place on 14 October 2012 when Baumgartner landed in eastern New Mexico after jumping from a world record 38,969.3 metres (127,852 feet and falling a record distance of 36,402.6 metres. On the basis of updated data, Baumgartner also set the record for the highest manned balloon flight (at the same height) and fastest speed of free fall at 1,357.64 km/h (843.6 mph), making him the first human to break the sound barrier outside a vehicle.

This piece on the Speed of Sound from Wikipedia:

The speed of sound is the distance traveled per unit of time by a sound wave propagating through an elastic medium. In dry air at 20 °C (68 °F), the speed of sound is 342 metres per second (1,122 ft/s). This is 1,233 kilometres per hour (666 kn; 766 mph), or about a kilometer in three seconds or a mile in five seconds.

The Speed of Sound changes with altitude, but surprisingly this is not due to density or pressure, but with temperature!

512px-Comparison_US_standard_atmosphere_1962.svgDensity and pressure decrease smoothly with altitude, but temperature (red) does not. The speed of sound (blue) depends only on the complicated temperature variation at altitude and can be calculated from it, since isolated density and pressure effects on sound speed cancel each other. Speed of sound increases with height in two regions of the stratosphere and thermosphere, due to heating effects in these regions.

You can click of the image  (left) to enlarge the image. For the purposes of this flight, we will be using the speed of sound at sea level.

Will there be a Sonic Boom?

Yes, but it will not likely to be heard. In fact there will be two. One as it breaks the sound barrier and goes supersonic and one again as it slows to subsonic. Givent he size of the craft and the distance and thin atmosphere, it is unlikely to be heard from the ground.

ITAR and Australia – Not Happy!

Tidbinbilla NASA Deep Space Network DSN 70m dishThe US ITAR Regulations and Australia

My rant for the day about ITAR. Well, I am ranting about ITAR most days! It is a rather difficult situation where another country’s regulations are imposed on your country. Well how did this happen? First I had better explain what ITAR is. This from Wikipedia:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Traffic_in_Arms_Regulations

International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) is a set of United States government regulations that control the export and import of defense-related articles and services on the United States Munitions List (USML). These regulations implement the provisions of the Arms Export Control Act (AECA), and are described in Title 22 (Foreign Relations), Chapter I (Department of State), Subchapter M of the Code of Federal Regulations. The Department of State Directorate of Defense Trade Controls (DDTC) interprets and enforces ITAR. Its goal is to safeguard U.S. national security and further U.S. foreign policy objectives. The related Export Administration Regulations (Code of Federal Regulations Title 15 chapter VII, subchapter C) are enforced and interpreted by the Bureau of Industry and Security in the Commerce Department. The Department of Defense is also involved in the review and approval process. Physical enforcement of import and export laws at border crossings is performed by Customs and Border Protection, an agency of the Department of Homeland Security.

Simply put, Australia has forged a close trade alignment with the USA and to obtain those trade concessions, we had to agree to ITAR. This makes it very difficult indeed to work in the space sector and still obey Australian laws and ITAR. One simple issue is Australian Discrimination law. These are strong and rigidly enforced and in essence making everyone equal. Even those with temporary visas that allows work in Australia. There are also those with dual or multiple citizenship and ITAR has issues with this. It even affected NASA’s Australian Deep Space Network near Canberra. I was there last April and recently posted this on Facebook:

I was invited to NASA’s 40th Anniversary celebrations of the 70m (230ft) diameter dish at their Deep Space Network (DSN) site near Canberra in Australia. It was in April 2013 – earlier this year. Note the three flags in the image below – the US, Australian and CSIRO. The CSIRO is an Australian organisation that has been contracted to run the site for many years – CSIRO stands for Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation.  Continued below…

IMG_0827
Australia has close security arrangements with the US and we have access to ITAR restricted material under special trade arrangements with the US government. Australia is therefore somewhat controlled by the ITAR regulations in unusual ways. CSIRO ran into issues with ITAR as some of their employees were legally citizens from other countries. This is a bit of a red flag under ITAR rules and it is also a breach of Australian law if you remove staff from certain areas because of race – we have strong anti-discrimination laws here in Australia. The only way that we got around this was to absorb all the Australian DSN staff into the government as government employees and that satisfied ITAR. So basically we now have rules written by a foreign government that are also enforced in Australia – crazy. I guess if they change ITAR, we also have to change!

I am glad that we have good security arrangements with the US, but it is hard for me to work in the space sector when one of my main aerospace engineers at PlusComms holds three passports! I remain concerned about the ITAR minefield I am crossing in my company.

This is also a minefield for our team in the Google Lunar X-Prize – Stellar Aerospace – our new name. We have many countries involved and their laws on exporting knowledge and equipment are all part of the equation.

Robert Brand

Jason Delivers 18 Lectures in 3 Days

UpLift-16 AlburyScience Week at Albury, Australia 2013

I was delighted when the organisers of the Border Stargaze and Science Fair invited Jason and myself to deliver 18 x 30 minute talks over three days to both public school students and high school students. I threw Jason in the Deep end and told him, it was his job to deliver the talks. We were also asked to fly a small balloon with just a tracking payload. It was designated sequentially in our UpLift series as UpLift-16. We were not planning on recovering the tracker, but with our record of recovery, it seems that we were destined to even get this one returned to us. That was mentioned in an earlier post. See: Australians Applying to CASA for a HAB Flight More on that later.

Here is a bit about the event:

Border Stargaze and Science Fair

The event is open to all ages, the wider community, schools and amateur astronomers. The Border Stargaze has grown over the past 7 years and with it the annual Science Fair. It is event such as these that have inspired individuals, groups, schools, the community and universities in our region.

When: Monday, August 12 2013 till Sunday, September 8 2013. 9:00 AM to 12:00 PM
Where: Albury, NSW, 2640
What: Festival, Hands-on activity, Talk / Lecture
Theme: Energy and transport, Environment and nature, Health and medical, Space and astronomy, Innovation and technology
We drove down from Sydney – a solid 6 hour drive and of course we had to drive back after the event. They had offered to fly us there, but the amount of gear we needed even for the simplest balloon flight and props for the lectures was too much to fly to Albury. Jason Delivered 18 Lectures in 3 Days.
We left after School on Monday afternoon and got to Albury late Monday ready for the lectures the next morning. It was a great event and after a few talks with me assisting, Jason (11)  found his stride and he was delivering the talks like he had been doing them all his life. The subject was launching and recovering stratospheric balloons. We passed around the tools of the trade we use to get a high altitude balloon into the stratosphere. Balloons, parachutes, even the thin cord used to suspend the payload from the balloon and of course the GPS tracker.
On Thursday morning we got up before dawn on a very cold winters morning and headed out to the designated launch site. Although it was the required 5km from the airport we had to liaise with Albury airport because we were in the landing circuit. We had to release our balloon between landings. We were able to give the airport our tracking web page and they were able to monitor our balloons flight, ensuring adequate safety for those in the air. We successfully launched our small balloon and tracker – no parachute as it would fall slowly with its super-light weight bubble wrap cover. We only used the bubble wrap to insulate from the extreme cold of the jet stream. The winds would take the payload to the east and over inaccessible land. We did not expect to see the tracker again, but we did thanks to the host of Canberra Fuzzy Logic Science Show, Rod Taylor. We still have a 100% recovery record after 16 balloon flights. Rod’s trip to recover the payload will be in another post.

Jason and I have HAM radio licenses and we use a HAM radio compliant tracker for these flights. We are amateur radio operators, (nick named HAMs). Jason got his foundation license at age 9 because he wanted to help with the radio systems that we use to communicate. His license is not high enough to use the APRS (digital) systems, but I have a “full” license that allows me to use the systems. My call-sign is VK2URB and Jason’s is VK2FJAB. You can look up your local club on the Wireless Institute or Australia’s website and select “Radio Clubs” on their menu.

. Contact you local club for more information..
UpLift-16 Albury - before sunrise - it was cold
UpLift-16 Albury – before sunrise – it was cold
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UpLift-16 Albury - Preparations
UpLift-16 Albury – Preparations
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IMG_0076
UpLift-16 Albury – Preparations
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 UpLift-16 Albury - Preparation of the HAM Radio APRS Tracker
UpLift-16 Albury – Preparation of the HAM Radio APRS Tracker
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UpLift-16 Albury - Preparation of the HAM Radio APRS Tracker
UpLift-16 Albury – Preparation of the HAM Radio APRS Tracker
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Jason in Class with the balloon being tracked across country
Jason in class delivering a lecture with the balloon being tracked across country.
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  UpLift-16 Flight 01
UpLift-16 Flight over the lakes near Albury – Lake Hume on the right.
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UpLift-16 passing overt the old Honeysuckle Creek Dish Site.
 UpLift-16 passing overt the old Honeysuckle Creek Dish Site.
Note the harsh mountain forests and difficult terrain.
Honeysuckle Creek Tracking Station brought the world
Neil Armstrong’s first steps on the moon  – Apollo 11

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UpLift-16 breaks our personal best altitude record.
UpLift-16 breaks our personal best altitude record.
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Jason Brand and Dr Barry Jones - past Science MinisterThe flight made it to well over 30km altitude and set down in a field near the Monaro Highway as the small village of Michelago. It was too easy to recover after avoiding so many impossible places. The classes that watched the tracking in class cheered every time we set a new record. Jason was also given the privilege of representing his school in Sydney and wore his school uniform – Leichhardt Public School (Y6)
Jason with Dr Barry Jones – Past Minister for Science and quiz show contestant extraordinaire. Now in his eighties, he is still a huge supporter of science and was a key note speaker at the Albury National Science Week event where Jason was a guess presenter. Jason was excited when Dr Jones mentioned that he had heard of Jason’s balloon flight that landed south of Canberra in the ACT. He said that it was lucky to land south as all the hot air would have kept it from landing in Canberra (full of politicians). — at Charles Sturt University.
Our return drive to Sydney on Thursday night was uneventful and Jason was back at school the next day. He did have to give the same talk to his Y6 students at his school.

13th Australian Space Science Conference Pt1

13th ASSC Uni NSWSpace Education

by Robert Brand

I was fortunate to present at the 13th Australian Space Science Conference at Sydney University a little over a week ago. The only unfortunate thing was a mix-up by yours truly and I ended up there on the wrong day. I was meant to be delivering a talk on “Triple Play in the Space Sector” and poor Alice Gorman, who was hosting the panel, was asking if I had turned up. My biggest apologies ever Alice!

I did however get a chance to present in the education stream and I am including this presentation here. My son Jason came along to help me as it was school holidays. Luckily every talk was about some of the work that he does with me, so it was pretty interesting most of the time.

Below is the PDF version of my PowerPoint presentation. It is interesting to note that we are doing so much that I can easily put together a complete presentation during a few other people’s talks. As you can see I gave my WotzUp website a plug!

You can download it here:  Click to Download

Download (PDF, 3.5MB)

Australia Enters the Space Age – History

wresatAustralia’s WRESAT 1967 – History

Weapons Research Establishment Project: WRESAT

Not WotzUp, but a good bit of Australian History. Some Australian Space history for those interested.

On 29 November 1967, Australia became only the fourth country – after the USA, Soviet Union and France – to launch its own satellite from its own territory.

The battery-powered WRESAT weighed about 45 kilograms and was designed in the form of a cone. Three cones (two test and one actual) were constructed in the development phase, and a range of tests were carried out to ensure the satellite’s durability. As well as the durability tests, the final experiment tested the ejection of the protective plate covering the instrumentation during flight. In the early days of rocket and satellite work, countless experiments were lost due to the failure of covers to eject.

The scientific instrumentation carried by WRESAT followed on from previous upper atmospheric research that had been conducted at Woomera using sounding rockets. Among other things, WRESAT’s sensors and detectors measured solar radiation and its effects on temperature and composition of the upper atmosphere. The satellite was able to collect atmospheric information covering the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere and the mid-latitudes of the southern hemisphere – areas where measurements hadn’t previously been taken.

wresatHaving arrived at Woomera from Orroral Valley, and after some final checking and testing of experiment instrumentation, the satellite was transported to its launch vehicle. Reportedly the American team was horrified at the sight of WRESAT bumping around in the back of an open truck. The Australians argued that if it couldn’t withstand the short ride, it was not likely to withstand a lift-off. By launch stage, the rocket had been painted white for ease of tracking.

This sequence of the film is actually a bit misleading. The launch was originally intended for 28 November 1967. The six-hour countdown commenced on time, but was aborted 30 seconds from zero due to the failure of a heating-cooler unit to eject. So although the launch, which took place successfully the following day, was historically very significant, very few dignitaries were there to witness it. During WRESAT’s orbiting life of 42 days, it went around the world 642 times and transmitted scientific data on 73 of them, until its batteries were exhausted.

Apollo 11 (Archives)

Robert Brand at Sydney ABC StudiosMy Apollo 11 History

*** Retrieved from Archives ***

Many of you may have realised that I have had some historic connection to space. It certainly was not anything to do with the space sector, just the terrestrial (ground) sector. It never resulted in getting into the space sector, although back in 1999 I did come close to working for a US company for Apollo astronaut Pete Conrad – United Space Networks. Unfortunately Pete Conrad lost his life that year in a tragic motorbike accident. I did not think of working in the space sector again. Until now.

I worked in support of many Apollo missions and Many Shuttle missions and ESA’s Giotto Mission to Halleys comet where I was sent to fix major problems with the terrestrial systems and eventually found ESA’s equipment to be at fault. They had been rattling the diplomatic chain to get the bad links fixed and it turned out to be their own problem! I was also at Parkes for NASA’s Voyager spacecraft and its encounters with Uranus and Neptune. It all sounds impressive and I even have an award for support of the STS-1 first shuttle launch. It was personally presented to me back in 1981. The fact is that it was always the regular circuits I was looking after and I was good at it. I was the guy that they sent to Parkes when things got “touchy” with the terrestrial sector.

So some 43 years ago at the age of 17, I was asked to do some interesting wiring.

You can listen to me here to the ABC science Show from recorded on 11-7-2009:

Click Here To Listen

or here to listen to Radio Australia’s Breakfast show from 26-6-2009:

Click Here To Listen

On a sad note, Neil Armstrong died this month making me want to again celebrate his achievements by publishing this story. There will be more like Neil, but he eptomises the spirit of a true space explorer.

This article was published by me (Robert Brand) as part of the Apollo 11 40th anniversary celebrations some years ago I worked at the time for Australia’s Overseas Telecommunications Commission – A government organisation that looked after Australia’s international telecommunications services before deregulation of the market place in 1992.

Apollo 11 40th anniversary Celebrations

This story was published 40 year after Apollo 11 took off and it was 57 hours into the relived flight:

Apollo 11 right now (minus 40 years) and 57+ hours into the mission

40 years ago ApolloSkip back 40 years to the minute with Apollo 11

Right now (minus 40 years) and 57+ hours into the mission – Neil and Buzz have just finished checking out the Lunar Module. They are about to enter the area where the moon has the greatest influence and mission control will switch to moon reference as the spacecraft begins to accelerate towards the moon.

I was just listening to the audio feed minus 40 years and heard them ask the Apollo 11 astronauts to “stir up the cryos”. It would have been a different story if they had gotten the tank that ended up on Apollo 13!

OTC PaddingtonThis takes me back to my personal involvement in the Apollo missions. I like many of my counterparts working at the Overseas Telecommunications Commission (Australia) – OTC – 40 years ago listen to the astronauts’ channel all day on my shifts. Not much else to do as it was “hands off” during the missions. Listening to the pops and crosstalk in the quiet periods I can tell that it was all carried on cable – narrow bandwidth compared to satellite channels (3.1kHz compared to 3.4kHz). During the quiet times I can also hear the noise and crosstalk. Occasionally a string of faint tones can be heard in the background. This was the CCITT No5 signalling that was predominant in international telephony at the time.Like the tones on modern telephones, but sent in a tight string by the switching equipment.

Send me your stories of what you were doing at the time and we will publish as many as we can. robert.brand@echoesofapollo.com

My involvement with Apollo 11 was mainly wiring up the Voice, data and video wiring for the mission at the Sydney terminal in Australia. Not a big job, but I was doing field training during my term breaks from college at the grand age of 17 years old. Fellow trainee Paul Davies and I were asked to wire some some NASA equipment and although I initially messed up the colour code, I got further work doing more wiring. I was working under Wayne Ozarko who was the only technician in the area that had TV experience. It must be remembered that international TV was pretty new and the Moree earth station had been built especially to suit the time-frame of Apollo missions. Moree was 6 hours drive north from Sydney and located in a radio free area in a shallow valley with farmland all around.

By the way, thanks to the CSIRO and the Honeysuckle Creek group for their photos and stories

At Paddington we had the NASA gear that controlled the switching for the mission. It was pretty much state of the art and there was no way that the communications work had seen modems capable of switching the massive bandwidth needed for the mission. Speeds that a standard dial-up modem exceeds today.

Without too many boring details, here are some pictures of the setup at our Paddington terminal in Sydney

Wayne Ozarko at Sydney Video Apollo 11 OTC Paddington

dick_holl_sydney_video_sm1

sydney_video_console-300x213

sydney_video_scanconv-300x2041

itoc_at_paddington_with_bob_goodman2

The last photo (above) was taken with the media present for the moon walk. The NASA video and switching gear is located inside the glass-off room. I watched the moon walk from back in my technical college with about 100 others on a small TV. I was a little bit more excited than the others knowing my small part.

For those that want more technical info please explore the CSIRO and Honeysuckle Creek sites:

http://www.parkes.atnf.csiro.au/news_events/apollo11/

http://www.honeysucklecreek.net/msfn_missions/index.html

Also remember that one of our sponsors is the OTVA (OTC and other international comms veterans). You can find more at:

http://www.otva.com

Now for some more technical details for the telecommunications geeks like me:

apollo 11 tv relay path

intelsat iii

Apollo 11 nasacom map

The images from Parkes were amazingly better and the world is searching for the lost data tapes. To give you some idea, here are a couple of Polaroid snaps from the TV screen at Parkes:

 parkes_apollo11_tv_commercial_iconparkes_apollo11_tv_sstv_polaroid_icon

Ignore the color differences – they were all black and white for Apollo 11. These comments directly from the CSIRO website:

Above are two images received by the Parkes Radio Telescope and taken at approximately the same time on 21 July 1969 (AEST). The image on the left is a Polaroid taken directly off the Parkes SSTV monitor, and the image on the right was the broadcast image taken at approximately the same time. The left Polaroid picture is an image of what was actually received by the Parkes Radio Telescope and the right image is after it was scan-converted to commercial TV standards and broadcast to the world.

Compare Armstrong’s reflection in Aldrin’s visor; the SSTV image clearly shows Armstrong whereas in the scan-converted image his reflection is barely recognisable. Compare also, the creases in the gold foil on the LM ladder leg. It is clear from these comparisons, that the pre scan-converted SSTV images were of a higher resolution and definition and contained much more detail than was actually broadcast to the world.

These images were provided courtesy of Bob Goodman, the OTC International Co-ordinator for all the transmissions between Australia and the USA. Bob was in charge of the International Telecommunications Operating Centre (ITOC) located at the OTC Paddington Terminal, Sydney in July 1969. The images were scanned by his son, Rob Goodman, in February and March 2004.

It should be noted that these pictures were taken before satellite transmission and media conversion for other standards such as the North American NTSC system. What other countries saw was far more degraded than what was seen locally in Australia. Most of the moon walk originated from transmissions received here in Australia – initially from the Honeysuckle Creek dish and then from the Parkes dish.

The images below are Honeysuckle Creek (left) and Parkes (right). Note that Parkes has been strengthened and modified for reception of higher frequencies and the dish has a near solid surface these days. Also the Honeysuckle Creek dish was relocated to NASA Tidbinbilla (nearby) and is possibly to be retired in August. We are awaiting the outcome of discussions about its future.

hsk_1971_tn  parkes_tn

North America and Europe saw initial coverage from the US Goldstone Dish below with Walter Cronkite in the photo. Echoes of Apollo was saddened to hear of his passing. Most of the world watched his coverage of the lunar landing.

C-59-5-2

CBS News anchor Walter Cronkite (left), with Apollo station Bendix Manager Tom Turnbull in front of the Goldstone MSFN 85 foot antenna. 4th July 1969

This story was published 19th July 2009 on the Echoes of Apollo Website

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I guess from interesting beginnings, I always had the space bug, but it has only been the last 1-2 years that I have pushed hard into the space sector and made significant ground. If I can do this at the age of 60, then anyone can. My background is radio and electronics. Plenty of people have these skills and plenty have more. Some have other skills that would be fantastic for the space sector. Medicine, biology, geology to name a couple. It all depends on your focus and your desire to “make it so” if I can steal a few words from “Captain Picard”