UpLift-1 Raw Data 28th Dec 2011 (Archives)

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UpLift-1 Flight Data 2011-12-28

I have already detailed the top level science that is easily seen from the data returned by radio telemetry from the flight. The radio link returns data approximately every 20 seconds and it has a variety of information as described previously. There are a few plots missing from the start and end of the flight as the tracking system only 863worked when the receivers could see the balloon. We were effectively over the radio horizon due to the distance from the receivers – much like a light house cannot light the ocean around it unless it is on a high headland. There are also 3 plots missing during the 2.5 hour flight. I have added these in to smooth out the plots, but the estimations are all in red. I have not tried to extrapolate data from the landing as I was not present to see the course it took.

The Database information is available in metric form and not imperial. You will need to convert that yourself, but that is very easy.

You can download the database here for educational purposed and similarly any photos are available for education purposes, but are copyright – Robert Brand 2011

CLICK HERE to DOWNLOAD the DATABASE

The file contains both flight data and graphs as used in the posts on this website re UpLift-1′s flight. There is also a list of photograph numbers. Many were unusable due to sun, glare, direction of the photo, etc. All photos indicated with a “1′ are available on this website in subsequent posts.

As far as position accuracy is concerned, the data from the telemetry also contain a parameter called HDOP. Firstly let’s look at DOP:

The following information is from http://gpsinformation.net/main/dopnontech.htm

Dilution of Precision

The DOP factor is used in a very simple equation:

SD(position) = DOP * SD(inputs)

This means that the standard deviation of the position is simply the standard deviation of the inputs multiplied times the DOP factor. Of course, this formula isn’t as simple as it looks, since for GPS a multidimensional solution is required, and therefore matrix mathematics is used. But the idea is good.

One interesting thing about DOP is that it does not depend on the anything that cannot be predicted in advance. It only depends on the positions of the GPS satellites relative to the GPS receiver’s location. The satellite positions can be calculated in advance, so you can determine the quality of your GPS position fix in advance, without even using the GPS system.

Satellite geometry

DOP only depends on the position of the satellites: how many satellites you can see, how high they are in the sky, and the bearing towards them. This is often refered to as the geometry. The satellites move, so the geometry varies with time, but it is very predictable.

HDOP = Horizontal Dilution of Position

HDOP is horizontal DOP. It is one component of the total DOP. Others are VHOP for Vertical DOP, PDOP for 3D positions, TDOP for time, and GDOP for geometic DOP. Altogether they =DOP.

UpLift-1  was outdoors and the receiver facing the sky with only a layer of bubble-wrap and Styrofoam that had already been tested for GPS integrity. It offered no apparent impediment to GPS signals. In fact the entire flight was a DOP=1. This is the lowest error estimate and means the horizontal position information was estimated to be very accurate. It has not been included with the figures. The vertical position also appears to be accurate with the repetition of the data and the expected rates of slowing on descent. The smoothness of the curves attests to the quality of the results.

UpLift-1 Flight Data Pt-3 (Archives)

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UpLift-1 Facts and Figures 28th Dec 2011 Pt-3

Time for some SCIENCE. I have cleaned up all the data from the flight removing duplicated figures and out of place data that sometimes occurs from having lots of receiving stations all trying to add it to the database. The figures are certainly interesting and even fun to see what is going on during the flight.

Wind Speed at Altitude

We all know what the weather is like in our own countries and the news and documentaries will often let you know about other countries. I live in Australia on the SE coast. For my high altitude balloon flight I traveled to the centre of my state (New South Wales – NSW) for a number of reasons. Predominantly it was because of the prevailing winds and the flat open farmland. Easier to ensure a clean landing with few trees and no mountains to have to climb. When I say prevailing winds, I am talking about those at all altitudes that my balloon will be passing through. I mentioned that in previous posts that I use a balloon prediction site and that I get a good idea of wind speeds and thus the direction of the flight. The site even outputs the file as a kml file that can easily be opened by Google Earth.

We can easily use the weather service for the ground winds, but the upper level winds can be a bit fickle and not easily forecast by the prediction service, but the balloon does not stay in those regions too long. The main winds that will govern most of the flight as my latitude (-33 degrees – south of the equator)  are those of the jet stream.

Jet Streams (from Wikipedia):

Jet streams are fast flowing, narrow air currents found in the atmospheres of some planets, including Earth. The main jet streams are located near the tropopause, the transition between the troposphere (where temperature decreases with altitude) and the stratosphere (where temperature increases with altitude).The major jet streams on Earth are westerly winds (flowing west to east). Their paths typically have a meandering shape; jet streams may start, stop, split into two or more parts, combine into one stream, or flow in various directions including the opposite direction of most of the jet. The strongest jet streams are the Polar jets, at around 7–12 km (23,000–39,000 ft) above sea level, and the higher and somewhat weaker Subtropical jets at around 10–16 km (33,000–52,000 ft). The Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere each have both a polar jet and a subtropical jet. The northern hemisphere polar jet flows over the middle to northern latitudes of North America, Europe, and Asia and their intervening oceans, while the southern hemisphere polar jet mostly circles Antarctica all year round. Jet streams are caused by a combination of a planet’s rotation on its axis and atmospheric heating (by solar radiation and, on some planets other than Earth, internal heat). Jet streams form near boundaries of adjacent air masses with significant differences in temperature, such as the polar region and the warmer air towards the equator.

So what did we find? The following charts shows the balloon flight right up to burst point and also from burst point to landing. It shows the wind strengths that it encountered in kilometers per hour. For reference 40km per hour = 25 miles per hour. Altitude is in meters and similarly 10,000m = 6.2 miles. The chart showing descent should be similar but the rate of fall is exponential and not linear so there will be some compression and expansion of the horizontal axis. Due to the fall taking 1/3 the time of the climb there will be fewer plot points and also a greater potential for GPS inaccuracy.

Wind Speed vs Altitude - Climb

Wind Spped vs Reverse Altitude - Fall

In the chart below I have labelled the major points of change in the chart. Of interest there were three layers of wind prior to the balloon entering the jet stream or streams. The major point of interest was that there were two jet streams both traveling in the same directions. The winds of the troposphere were approximately half of the strength of the jet streams and in the opposite direction by chance. If the balloon had made it to higher levels in the troposphere, it may have encountered other wind directions, but the winds may have been much lower in strength.

Wind Speed vs Altitude - Climb - modified

Air Pressure and Altitude

The chart below shows plot points and both altitude and air pressure in Pascals. Pascals for those in non metric countries are defined in Wikipedia as:

The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure, internal pressure, stress, Young’s modulus and tensile strength, named after the French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer, and philosopher Blaise Pascal. It is a measure of force per unit area, defined as one newton per square metre. In everyday life, the pascal is perhaps best known from meteorological barometric pressure reports, where it occurs in the form of hectopascals (1 hPa ≡ 100 Pa) or kilopascals (1 kPa ≡ 1000 Pa). In other contexts, the kilopascal is commonly used, for example on bicycle tire labels. One hectopascal corresponds to about 0.1% of atmospheric pressure slightly above sea level; one kilopascal is about 1% of atmospheric pressure. One hectopascal is equivalent to one millibar; one standard atmosphere is exactly equal to 101.325 kPa or 1013.25 hPa or 101325 Pa.

Simply at sea level there will be 100,000 Pascals (left side of graph and the start of the plot from the balloon). Air pressure (Pa)  is plotted in red and altitude (m) in blue. The rate of climb is near linear while air pressure is more exponential. Note that the initial rate of climb on the left corner is high as it appears that we were in a thermal or rising air mass.

Altitude and Air Pressure

That concludes the science breakdown of the flight. there are plenty of more breakdowns of the data that can be carried out, but in this and the previous 2 posts I have explored most of the more relevant information that can be derived from the flight. My next post will provide access to the data from the flight.

UpLift-1 Flight Data Pt-2 (Archives)

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UpLift-1 Facts and Figures 28th Dec 2011 Pt-2

Time for some SCIENCE. I have cleaned up all the data from the flight removing duplicated figures and out of place data that sometimes occurs from having lots of receiving stations all trying to add it to the database. The figures are certainly interesting and even fun to see what is going on during the flight.

Temperature.

Unfortunately, UpLift-1 did not have an external temperature sensor – just a payload sensor. The payload sensor will be useful to see the stresses that the payload has to handle, but due to the thermal properties of the capsule (polystyrene is an insulator) and the thermal wrap around the electronics (bubble-wrap) the payload temperature will be both reduced and delayed slightly. The capsule did have some small penetrations that made its insulation poor and the transmitter also produced some small amount of heat that would have affected the cooling effects slightly. It was mainly the bubble-wrap that protected the electronics from the -40 to -50 degrees Celsius (  -40 to -68F). So what happens and why the cold temperatures?

The atmosphere has many layers and the first that we live in is the Troposphere. The following (Troposphere and Stratosphere) are from Wikipedia:

Troposphere

The troposphere begins at the surface and extends to between 9 km (30,000 ft) at the poles and 17 km (56,000 ft) at the equator, with some variation due to weather. The troposphere is mostly heated by transfer of energy from the surface, so on average the lowest part of the troposphere is warmest and temperature decreases with altitude. This promotes vertical mixing (hence the origin of its name in the Greek word “τροπή”, trope, meaning turn or overturn). The troposphere contains roughly 80% of the mass of the atmosphere.

The tropopause is the boundary between the troposphere and stratosphere.

Stratosphere

The stratosphere extends from the tropopause to about 51 km (32 mi; 170,000 ft). Temperature increases with height due to increased absorption of ultraviolet radiation by the ozone layer, which restricts turbulence and mixing. While the temperature may be −60 °C (−76 °F; 210 K) at the tropopause, the top of the stratosphere is much warmer, and may be near freezing. The stratopause, which is the boundary between the stratosphere and mesosphere, typically is at 50 to 55 km (31 to 34 mi; 160,000 to 180,000 ft). The pressure here is 1/1000 sea level.

Our balloon flight will start at the bottom of the Troposphere 34C (93F) at ground level, pass through the thin Tropopause at a bit less than 17 km (56,000 ft), where temperatures could be as low at -50C (-68F) and into the stratosphere where temperatures could warm to just above or below freezing. The climb will end in the Stratosphere when the balloon expands until it explodes and then falls back to earth and back through the cold. The chart below provides critical data on payload temperatures:

Payload Temperature vs Altitude

Above we see the effect of passing through the very cold temperatures of the Troposphere and then the warming of the Stratosphere – even though it is only warming to about freezing! The descent takes the already cold payload back through freezing conditions in the Troposphere again further cooling the payload to a maximum of -12C (10.4F) before warming to a balmy +3C (+37.4F) by the end of the flight. By the time of recovery 2 hours later the  payload had warmed to outside temperatures.

Thermal delay

The chart below shows an approximation of the outside temperatures encountered during the flight plotted alongside of the payload temperatures:

Payload Temperature and Estimated Outside Temperature

There is a good possibility that the temperature in the Stratosphere was above freezing as the payload was warming up substantially. It is not likely to have been from the electronics as the transmitter was extremely low power with a small duty cycle (10%).

Battery Conditions due to Temperature

Simply put, batteries fail when they get cold. This got a little colder than I would have liked. Extra bubble-wrap would have been helpful or sealing the camera penetration better would have helped. In future, I will do both. The battery volts dropped to very low levels due to the cold, but since they were Lithium batteries they worked okay at -12C (10.4F). Battery volts had fallen from 5.8V at the start of the flight to 5.1 in the extreme cold and returned to 5.8v by the time of recovery of the capsule.

Payload Temperature (C) and Battery Volts

In the graph above the battery voltage had started to recover as the capsule landed on the ground. The size of the batteries meant that they would have remained cold the longest even though the electronics warmed up relatively quickly the thermal mass of the batteries took much longer to warm. The batteries were inside the many layers of bubble-wrap.

More on the flight data in the next post

UpLift-1 Flight Data Pt-1 (Archives)

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UpLift-1 Facts and Figures 28th Dec 2011 Pt-1

Time for some SCIENCE. I have cleaned up all the data from the flight removing duplicated figures and out of place data that sometimes occurs from having lots of receiving stations all trying to add it to the database. The figures are certainly interesting and even fun to see what is going on during the flight.

Some Facts first:

  • Altitude of the launch site is about 90m or 300ft above sea level. flat farmland was chosen for lack of trees and easy access for recovery.
  • Morning was chosen for air stability and lower wind levels.
  • Weather: Clear with little to no wind. Summer.
  • Flight launch: 10;53 28th Dec 2011 EDST (23:53 27th Dec 2011 UTC).
  • Flight landing: 13:40 28th Dec 2011 EDST (02:53 28th Dec 2011 UTC).
  • Flight time: 2 hours 47 minutes.
  • Maximum Recorded Altitude: 26.181km – 85,896 feet – 16.2681 miles.
  • Distance traveled: 45.6km (28 miles).
  • Direction from launch of 72 degrees.
  • Rate of climb: 3m/sec (5ft/sec) near sea level to near 5m/sec (8ft/sec) at the burst point.
  • Payload temperature during flight: 34C (93F) at ground level to -12C (10.4F) minimum.
  • Maximum recorded rate if fall: 33m/sec (110ft/sec)
  • Anomalies encountered: Thermal at the time of release caused 9m (30ft) initial rate of climb.
  • Balloon: Totex 350g (optimum fill 1.2m, actual fill 1.35m diameter)
  • Gas used for lift: Helium
  • Payload: Polystyrene box with a bit less than 1/2kg weight (1lb) including parachute.
  • Camera: GoPro 7mp still camera set to take photos every 30 seconds – lasted entire flight. Housing included
  • Tracking was via Amateur Radio APRS with Internet and direct reception in vehicle. 145.175MHz Packet radio.
  • Transmitter from Argent Data system with GPS rated for over 60,000 feet and 1/2 watt transmitter.
  • Antenna – precision tuned vertically mounted dipole.
  • Transmitter Power: 2 x mounted on-board Lithium 3V pile batteries.
  • Reporting time: 20 seconds.
  • Thermal insulation for transmitter: Polystyrene capsule and three layers of bubble wrap.

The first bit of data showed that UpLift-1 climbed very quickly. At first I could not believe the rate of climb, but there it was climbing at 9m per second. I now know that this was an anomaly. The simplest and most likely explanation is that at the time that we released the balloon we were in a thermal area where the hot air at that spot was rising quickly were near by air was falling. As it was early in the day, upper air thermals had not formed so the affect was short lived. So here is the graph of altitude for the flight:

Atitude vs Time

At the very start of the flight there is a slightly different rate of climb caused by the thermal that dissipates at about 2km. From then on the climb is steady and near flat. The rate of climb being mainly determined by the size of the balloon (air resistance and lift) and the wright of the payload. As the air thins, the balloon expands keeping the air resistance somewhat the same, but as altitude increases, the ability to lift is also reduced. The result is a fairly consistent rate of climb. At the maximum altitude the balloon bursts and the payload is released. The parachute is ineffective in the free air and the rate of fall is determined by air density producing a somewhat parabolic curve. For most balloon flights with a reasonable rate of climb, the climb to fall ratio is usually between 3:1 or 4:1 for flight estimations.

The rate of climb graph shows the linear and parabolic effects more clearly”

Rate of Climb - Fall vs Time

In the graph above, you can clearly see the high initial rate of climb and the slowing of the rate as it left the thermal event. The rate was not flat, but slowly climbed from 3m/sec (5ft/sec)  to near 5m/sec (8ft/sec) at the burst point. There is a fairly long period of time following the burst point before the payload reaches terminal velocity of greater than 33m/sec (110ft/sec) – remember that the plots are 20 seconds apart. There is one plot during the initial fall that indicated that the payload was accelerating and was showing 9m/sec (30ft/sec) fall and accelerating until terminal velocity is reached – the point where air resistance stops any further acceleration due to gravity.

The payload – a foam box weighing less than 1/2kg (about 1lb) has plenty of air resistance at sea level, but very little in the thin atmosphere. As it falls the air density increases and the rate slows. Where the rate of climb was determined by fairly linear forces, the rapid descent is clearly non linear when plotted against time.

Part two shortly with links to both imperial and decimal data data sets.

UpLift-16 Grazing Property near Michelago

Australians Applying to CASA for a HAB Flight

Are you Australian and want to fly a High Altitude Balloon (HAB) in Australia?

CASA  Civil Aviation Safety Authority

Although I have been adding archives back to the site, there is one key post that I was unable to restore – the all important letter to CASA for the launch with details of the flight, so i will ad this one to the site. It was for UpLift-16 launched only 2 months ago for Science Week.

First some background: There is a real problem with the rules for releasing balloons in Australia. Simply put, there is a mistake in the regulations for light balloons. It says a “Light” balloon cannot every be more than 2m (about 6ft)  at any altitude. Of course that is nearly impossible, especially when lifting heavy payloads in the light balloon category. We launch up to 2.5kg payloads so most missions fit this profile.

You will need to contact CASA with a request – simply call and ask for a contact in your state.

Second you need to detail your flight and include predictions for the flight. There are websites that will give predictions, but since these are good for only 24 hours prior to launch, you need to give an estimate based on the average for the days seen. It is important that you give CASA plenty of time to process the application. Why? Because you may be asked to make changes. This is especially for first time flights. I had 3 delays in getting my first application through the system. I suggest that you allow 2 weeks minimum. If your application is okay, it is actually a requirement that CASA process the application within 2 days and issue the NOTAM (notice to Air Men – pilots) if there are no problems with the application.

This is the sort of letter required:

——————————————————————————

Please find below a request for a balloon flight that is a little different from our normal flights. This is from Albury, 5.42km NNW of the airport. If further distance is required, we can arrange that. Jason and I are traveling to Albury to assist in their mentoring for science students over 3 days. Jason (11) and in Year 6 will be giving 18 x 30 minutes science lessons to classes up to Year 8 over a 3 day period and we intend to launch a balloon with tracking as part of the mentoring sessions.

Regards, Robert Brand

1 The name, address and telephone number of the person who will release the balloon: Robert Brand, xx xxx xxx xxxxxxx xxxx NSW 2xxx  Phone: xxxxxxxxxx

2 The date and time the release is to begin 7am 15th August 2013

3 Where it is to be carried out Elizabeth Mitchell Drive and Ettamogah Road Albury NSW  Lat: -36.0267  Long: 146.9876

4 The estimated size and mass of the balloon’s payload: 10cm high x 5cm wide x 5cm deep of bubble wrap. The mass of the payload 70g.

5 If more than 1 balloon is to be released at a time, how many balloons are to be released at the time Only one.

6 The balloon will have a very light weight 4 layer bubble wrap protection for the extremely light weight electronics. Cut down is not included at this point and the balloon expansion is not likely to be more than 2m before it exits normal air traffic altitudes. The balloon will only carry enough helium to lift itself and the payload at a reasonable rate. It is a 350 gram Totex Balloon. Tracking is by HAM radio APRS and can be followed on the Internet during the flight. We will be in good phone coverage during the flight. Tracking will begin before launch.

7 The Balloon will likely not burst until well out to sea over 400km east of the coast and is expected to follow a line of slightly below east (by about 10 degrees and slowly increasing to just above east (10 degrees after it has left the coast. It is expected to be out of controlled air space within 50km of launch (30 minutes).

8 It is part of the Science celebrations in Albury for school students.

Your help in this matter is truly appreciated.
——————————————————————————

UpLift-16 Grazing Property near MichelagoNote, in the above letter there is a comment that the balloon will not be over 2m – this was simply because for this flight, I did not want the additional weight of a radar reflector. A simple radar reflector may be required for most balloon flights in Australia.

Also not that the ability to cut down a heavy payload may also be needed – either by CASA or to ensure that you can recover your payload before it gets into country difficult for recovery. Also note that our balloon had some previous damage from Ultra Violet exposure and burst earlier than expected. It came down south of Canberra and the electronics has been retrieved from a grazing property just east of the NSW village of Michalago.

My good friend, Rod Taylor, host of Canberra’s FuzzyLogic Science Show went down and retrieved the payload. He also interviewed me for the show the following Sunday. I will provide a link in the near future. That is Rod below with the payload.

Rod Taylor with the UpLift-16 balloon and Payload at Michelago NSW

The CASA response is below:

——————————————————————————

Hi, Robert . . .

Airservices Australia require you to telephone the Albury Air Traffic Control Tower (ATC) on the day of launch to provide advance notice of a proposed launch time, and again at that time for approval to launch. The telephone number is (02) xxxx xxxx. No launch is to take place unless contact with ATC is made and approval provided.

The following NOTAMs have been issued in relation to your proposed launch.

ALBURY (YMAY)                                             C114/13

MET BALLOON RELEASE BRG 010 MAG 2.7NM FM VOR

BALLOON WILL TRACK GENERALLY EAST. FOR MORE INFO CTC xxxx xxx xxx

SFC TO UNL

FROM 08 142110 TO 08 150100

 

MELBOURNE FIR (YMMM)                                     C4868/13

MET BALLOON RELEASE BRG 010 MAG 2.7NM FM YMAY VOR

BALLOON WILL TRACK GENERALLY EAST. FOR MORE INFO CTC xxxx xxx xxx

SFC TO UNL

FROM 08 142110 TO 08 150100

Regards, xxxx xxxxxx

UpLift-1 Launch (Archives)

UpLift-1 Takeoff 28th Dec 2011.

UpLift-1 launch weatherBefore we even left home we needed a massive list to make sure that we did not leave anything behind. After all, a 600km / 400 mile trip for nothing would not be a lot of fun. It was a huge list for such a small balloon and payload. It included the balloon, parachute, payload, helium, spare balloon, test equipment, hoses, cameras, tripod, 2-way radios, tracking radios, decoders, computer, USB cables, mobile phones, car chargers and much, much more. But this is not about that story, this is launch day! We traveled to West Wyalong in NSW (Australia) and spent the night in a great little hotel ready for an early morning departure. We still had 100km / 60 miles to drive to the launch site. The first thing was to check the weather. We had already looked at a long distance forecast before setting the date as the Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) in Australia have to issue an alert to pilots for our balloon. CASA have been wonderful UpLift-1 Launch site with Jason Brand age 9and amazingly helpful. A peek out the door reveals a perfect day for a balloon flight. The photo on right shot outside my hotel room reveals a brilliant day with little wind early in the morning. We packed the car and headed to Rankins Springs near Goolgowi. I had fallen in love with this little town in the middle of nowhere. With about 50 people living in town, it was just a speck on the map at the intersecting of some sealed main roads. What struck me was that it was a place that people cared about. The public places were clean and the grass cut, perfect for preparing a balloon flight.

We found a clear grassed area next to an old Railway water tank used for filling steam engines. The contrast was great – the old and the new. This story is going to be a bit instructive so lots and lots of pictures. First I had my son Jason (9) laidUpLift-1 fill - Latex Gloves out the clean plastic sheet for the filling operation. We placed items in the corner in case a breeze kicked up the corners and destroyed the balloon. We also used Latex gloves to stop acids and other oils from transferring from our hands to the balloon and potentially causing an early failure of the balloon when the UV and other chemicals in the air act on it. We could also have used clean cotton gloves. The problem there was two fold. Sweat from our hands filled the gloves and needed to be changed occasionally to prevent and drops from landing on the balloon. The second problem was that every time we wanted to use duct tape, our gloves stuck very well to the tape! That is me on the left taping the hose to the balloon to protect it and getting the gloves stuck to the tape. There were cable ties under the tape and I used the tape to protect the balloon from sharp edges. The cable ties held the balloon to the flexible PVC tube. I also had the other end of the tube over the balloon fill regulator on the helium tank. That was just sealed with duct tape.

It was then time to prepare the payload. I had decided to block off one of the port holes for the video camera as I wanted this balloon to rise quickly. I was also going to overfill the balloon above specifications to ensure that it would explode a bit earlier than normal. All precautions for a first flight. While we were preparing for the flight, Wally, one of the locals came by on his ride-on mower and remembered me calling in at the petrol / gas station a month earlier. He was excited that we had chosen his town for the launch and APRS Tracker being wrapped in bubble wrapwent off to find the kids in town so that they could join in with all the excitement. Wally was the unofficial “mayor” of the town! A lovely character that obviously cared about kids. The photo on the right shows me preparing the GPS transmitter (Amateur Radio APRS). I am wrapping it in bubble wrap as a thermal insulator to protect it from the cold at the outside air temperature at times during the flight will be between -40 (-40F) and -50C (-58F) or possibly even lower. The capsule is also made from Polystyrene so that too will provide some protection from the cold, but with openings for the camera, there will be some cold air entering the capsule. Care was taken to ensure the dipole antenna (the two gold wires) was mounted vertically in the capsule in the correct place and the small GPS receiver was on top so that it would get a strong signal from the GPS satellites orbiting the earth. The balloon was on a 10m (30ft) cord so that the antenna had no chance of puncturing the balloon. The final benefit was that the capsule would never land upside down so the GPS receiver would always be able to receive satellite signals and report its position once on the ground. Lots to consider. The batteries were also the best that we could buy. Failure was not an option and the cold can kill batteries. We also wanted UpLift-1 Tracker competethe transmitter to last for as long as it took to recover the balloon. The unit was switched on and the receiver in my car was used to checked it was operational and all systems working. The unit reported position, altitude, atmospheric pressure, payload temperature and battery voltage. All parameters where checked and normal. APRS normally will allow you to see the track on the Internet, but we were too far away from any receivers to register. That would only happen when the flight was high enough for the distant receivers to “see” the balloon – once it was high enough to overcome the radio shadow caused by the curvature of the earth, allowing “line of sight” radio signals to be heard. Similarly when we landed, we would lose the signal close to the ground. We were going to rely on the receiver in our car to pick up the transmitter signals and read the location. This would be super important in a couple of hour. More on that later. The photo at right show the transmitter with one layer of bubble wrap. Two more were added with the GPS receiver wrapped to the top – above the side that you can see the unit with care taken to get it the right way around.

UpLift-1 CapsuleThe camera batteries were charged the night before and the camera then required special care. We had it in a sealed box with desiccant overnight to ensure that there was as little moisture as possible in the camera. This would otherwise cause condensation during the flight and fog the images. It was inserted quickly into the housing and the almost closed housing was flushed with helium from the filler hose. This ensured that water in the air was removed and the housing was sealed. The camera was turned on and set to commence taking photographs – the counter on the front began incrementing every 30 seconds. Both the camera and the transmitter were mounted in the capsule. The picture shows the camera in place secured with blocks of polystyrene  and the transmitter in place with the GPS receiver at the top. The payload bay was covered and sealed with duct tape and the capsule was ready to fly. All that waited was to fill the balloon.

UpLift-1 Balloon FillWe had brought a large bed sheet to hold over the balloon in case the wind was too strong for a simple fill. The wind was light and we did not need this, but if we had we would have asked volunteers to hold each corner down while we filled the balloon. The balloon fill was simple, but we needed to measure the diameter to get the fill right. If we under filled the balloon then it might never burst or even rise fast enough and drift long distances before popping. Either way I had made a decision to lighten the payload UpLift-1 measuring the diameterby leaving out the video camera and to overfill the balloon slightly. It was, from the manufacturer’s specifications meant to be 1.2m (3.937ft) in diameter.  I was going to fill it to 1.35m (4.43ft). Since the day was sunny, it was easy to accurately measure the diameter. We simply used a tape measure across the centre of the shadow – perpendicular to the rising sun. This meant that any stretch of the shadow from the angle of the sun would not affect the measurement. In the picture at left you can see that the sun is behind me and Jason is in the right place. The local that was helping just needed to move the measure up closer to the camera to get the final measurement (the photo was a few seconds early). We had the right diameter now and were ready to remove the hose and secure the payload. The helium tank valve needs to be shut off at this point in case the hose gets pulled and the tank either topples or adds more helium to the balloon. If the tank falls, then you could damage the regulator.

This next operation was the most difficult part of the procedureUpLift-1 Securing the neck and the payload. We had already wrapped a cable tie in duct tape to lower the chance of tearing the balloon when inserted. it would secure the nylon cord that secures the parachute and payload. First though, we needed to cut away the cable ties securing the balloon to the hose – all without cutting the balloon. The protective duct tape was peeled away and side cutters were used to sever the heads of the cable ties. This kept sharp edges away from the balloon. That is me on the right cutting the cable ties away (sorry no close-ups). Once the hose is removed then the balloon needs to be sealed and secured. I have no photos of this but the fill tube of the balloon is folded once and then a second time (4 folds thick). The cable tie with duct tape that was prepared earlier was inserted in the middle of the bottom folds ready to secure the payload. I then secured the balloon and and its UpLift-1 ready to launch with help from the locals at Rankins Springsgas with three cable ties above that making them tight around the fill tube. It must be tight to keep the gas in during the flight, especially as the outside pressure gets down to a few percent of sea level and the inside pressure remains the same. I cut the loose ends of the cable ties and used duct tape to keep them from touching the balloon. The cable tie that secured the payload was looped and the payload tied to the balloon. Again duct tape was used to secure the knot holding the payload to the balloon. Nothing was left to chance. The knot used was a bowline and few half hitches – sufficient if you have the duct tape to stop them unraveling. We were ready to launch. The local mission control countdown team were assembled (all but one shy kid and a few adults) and provided the all essential countdown – that’s Wally in he green/yellow safety shirt.

UpLift-1 Launch with Jason BrandIt was a great moment. Rankins Springs’ first near space mission. The countdown proceeded with the kids leading the chant. At zero, my son Jason released the balloon and it was away. Note the old steam engine water tank behind Jason – the old and the new. At about 270 metres the distant APRS receivers saw the balloon’s transmissions and we breathed a sigh of relief that we would be able to track and recover the balloon. We saw the updates every 20 seconds on our smart phones with all the details of the flight. We watched as the balloon stayed in clear view right up to 5km. We kept losing site of the tiny white dot, but the odd reflective glint from the shiny black duct tape brought our eyes back to the tiny 1.35m (4.5ft) white dot up in the clear blue skies of central NSW.  It should be noted, that none of these photos have been altered. They are directly from a number of cameras. The colours have not been corrected! The final job was to pack the car and chase the balloon.

It was serendipity that the first photo snapped by the payload camera at around 270m (900ft) was of the town itself. A wonderful memento of the occasion.

Below is the photo from Rankins Springs. You can click on most of the photos above and below to see a large version of the image (requires that you click through an intermediate page). I have uploaded the image of the town in the highest format possible.

UpLift-1 Rankins Springs 60 seconds after launch

60 seconds after release (below). This photo looking east above Rankins Springs:

Success – UpLift-1 Recovered (Archives)

*** Retrieved from Archives *** Success – UpLift-1 Recovered

UpLift-1 Flies to 26.161km Altitude

A quick update to tell you of our success. My son Jason (9) and I did it – 26km up – 15 miles – For 15 minutes we probably had the highest thing on planet earth. We got about 1/4 the way to space! In the photo at right, that is Jason in the field with the balloon about to launch.

The weather was clear and the skies almost clear of clouds when we launched the UpLift-1 weather balloon from Rankins Springs near Goolgowi in central NSW (Australia). We were an hour late but had about 20% of the town out to help! I think that we were told that the area had about 120 people and Rankins Springs has about 50 residents.

The flight lasted about 2 hours 40 minutes and landed about 4 fields from the road and we had great difficulty in driving to the landing site.

During the flight, the electronics got to -12C (12F) and the outside temperature got down to about -50C (-58F). As it climbed out of the Jet Stream, the atmosphere warms up to a balmy 5C on a good day. The low temperature caused the battery voltage to drop to 5.2v on the normally 5.8v battery. After it warmed up on the ground, the battery voltage returned to 5.8 volts.

The maximum recorded altitude was 26.181km – 85896 feet – 16.2681 miles. More in a couple of days. Some photos below for hold you over until the full story can be posted. The tracking worked perfectly.

Launch Site:

Launch Site - Rankins Springs

Path:

UpLift-1 Fulll Path

Landing site (X):

UpLift-1 Landing site

Recovery:

UpLift-1 Recovery

Rejoicing with a ginger beer (soda/soft drink):

Jason and Robert Brand Recover UpLift-1

One of the recovered photos:

UpLift-1 Camera view

More in a couple of days…

How to Use this Site

Robert brand 2013What is WotzUp all about?

The simplest answer is “hands on” space! The author, Robert Brand has been working on science and space projects for some time and is letting everyone ride along with the projects he is working on. Some are high altitude balloon missions like the UpLift series. Others are space missions like Team Stellar’s bid to get to the moon. Whatever the project, it will have a Project name.

My son Jason was 9 years old in 2011 when this site was formed and Jason is involved in many aspects of space. He take part in most balloon flights and recoveries. He is also Team Stellar’s Australian Student Representative. He obtained his Foundation HAM radio license at age 9 to help with balloon flights and recoveries.

How do you Navigate Wotzup.com?

This site uses the mission or project names in the category field. You can see all the posts for a particular mission or project by selecting it’s category – it is that simple.

We also use the term/category General for a variety of reasons such as housekeeping or articles of general interest or even articles not associated with a mission or project. Occasionally we will also have Featured articles. These are articles of some significance to any project. Simply I might want to draw your attention to a key event. These featured articles will appear on the front page when you first open the site.

The Category or “Project Menu” can be found in the top right column. A page menu can be found to the right of our logo images at the top of page. It contains special pages such as this one. Click on a Category and you isolate only the stories for the  the Project. Click on “Balloons” and you only see Balloon stories.

PlusComms MissionTrax (Archives)

MissionTrax Coverage*** Retrieved from Archives ***

Building a Global Space Network

This is a project that I am involved in and although it is not a personal project at this time, it is none the less a project that I have instigated. It is a project that is being handled under my Company PlusComms – I am a major shareholder. Press Release below:

Date: Thursday 22nd September 2011

Sydney, Australia

PlusComms Pty Limited based in Sydney, Australia has announced that it is building a Global Deep Space Network (DSN) subject to financing. The project involves 3 x 30m dishes in key locations around the world. The Project, called MissionTrax could be operational by first quarter 2014.

The driver for the project has been to locate large dishes with a 30 year or more lifetime and bring them back to full service. Not only is this a very environmentally friendly approach, but it also has the added benefit of costing 1/10th the price of building a new service with the same specifications. The first dish is located in California on the east coast of the USA. The site will be purchased and refurbished to operational standards, but it will be no longer used as a satellite “Earth station”. It will soon be part of a global network able to continuously track almost anything around the equatorial plane + or – 40 degrees. Although the coverage has yet to be tested at a range of frequencies, it is expected that missions as far away as Mars will have continuous coverage from Earth (excluding the rotation of Mars). The distance to Mars at the at the furthest point from Earth is 401 million km / 250 million miles – that is just under 3 Astronomical Units – or just under 3 times the distance from the earth to the sun. The three sites need to be on longitude that is 120 degrees from each other.

CTO of PlusComms, Robert Brand said “The extent of the coverage of course depends on the frequency being used and the power of the spacecraft. It is expected that communications with spacecraft near outer planets will also be part of the GSN’s capabilities but further testing will be done to confirm the overall performance of each dish and the complete network”.

“Modern satellite technology now allows dishes to be small and able to be placed in city locations. These older 30m dishes were built big to gather the weak signals and were located in “radio signal” quiet areas because the signals were hard to process. This makes these original workhorses redundant for tracking communications satellites, but perfect for building a DSN. Each GSN site will provide overlapping coverage of the previous site at a distance around 30,000 to 35,000km from the Earth’s surface (the blue circle in the attached diagram. These dishes were also built to a high tolerance and have specifications to over 15GHz. They are also Beam Wave Guide (BWG) dishes and thus the signal is beamed in a big tube right to the control room. This allows us to build a railway track to quickly disconnect and shunt in new equipment for different bands and capabilities. It is expected that it will take 45mins to connect and align a unit and 15 minutes to disconnect, allowing a one hour booking for a quick link with a spacecraft or rover / experiment on Mars or the Moon. The site will also provide full TT&C capability to fire engines and control satellites

In addition to the GSN capability, the US site will also be equipped as a large hosting centre for servers and other systems, with the ability to have individual partitions for companies. These sites were built to withstand a nearby blast from a nuclear bomb. With massive concrete walls the US site has amazing security and the ability to act as redundant site for most applications and secure the continued data operations of companies. The site already has fiber connectivity and plenty of room for more dishes. It is expected that this site will have multi-tenant uses.

“We would also like to return something to the global community and stimulate students by allowing automated access for basic Radio Telescope work when not booked for space tracking. We will employ automated systems via the Internet to explore the sky. The large dish may also be used for special events by other not for profit groups” Brand said. “The service will be headquartered in Sydney Australia. With the number of private space missions predicted to climb rapidly and a focus on the Moon and Mars, we expect a real growth in business over the next few years.”

Potential users of the facility should contact:

Robert Brand

robert.brand@pluscomms.com

The Space Show (Archives)

David Livingston*** Retrieved from Archives ***

Robert Brand – Guest on The Space Show

Robert Brand was a guest of Dr David Livingston on the Nov 1st 2011 edition of The Space Show. The program disussed Do-It-Yourself Space and was well received by all that heard it. The WotzUp website and the various missions were discussed at length during the broadcast.

The program can be hear by Click Here to Listen 

The Space Show page for the show archive can be viewed by Clicking Here to View

The page details are as follows:

Guest: Robert Brand.

Topics: Australian space history, Save Our Space Systems, old style radio dish antennas, space education outreach in Australia. You are invited to comment, ask questions, and discuss the Space Show program/guest(s) on the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments, questions, and any discussion must be relevant and applicable to Space Show programming. Transcripts of Space Show programs are not permitted without prior written consent from The Space Show (even if for personal use) & are a violation of the Space Show copyright. We welcomed Robert Brand as our guest to discuss space advocacy, space interests, education, and projects in Australia. I suggest you visit and have available the following websites while listening to this program: 1) http://wotzup.com. This site has the tabs and pages for many of the programs discussed by our guest. 2). http://echoesofapollo.com. 3) http://pluscomms.com. Click on the Space-Comms tab. In our first segment, Mr. Brand began by talking about the Global Space Network he was creating by utilizing outdated equipment such as 30 meter dishes that have been abandoned. He described his concept in detail, including costs and the likely customer base. Later in this segment, we took several calls from listeners such as the one by Roger that commented on the outstanding space education outreach projects undertaken by Mr. Brand so we moved along to the topic of kids and space education. Robert talked about 3D lunar photography from Apollo and some of his Middle School outreach projects. Later, Monroe called in to mention Team Prometheus and their satellite project as well as the N-Prize. You can learn more about Team Prometheus at www.teamprometheus.org. Kimberly emailed in requesting Robert share his vision for 21st century space awareness. Robert replied saying “making space everyday for everyday people.” Trent called from Australia to ask Robert what he thought were the greatest space needs for Australia. Robert talked about the need for disaster recovery information, data, facilities, etc. using real time space resources. In the second long segment, Robert directed us to his various websites listed at the start of this summary. We talked about Moon Bounce and Space-Quest, amateur radio , the UpLift project with balloon launches, and more. Robert went through the other programs on www.wotzup.com site including SugarShot, MissionTrax, Kidz-In-Space, and we talked about cubesat swarms and owning your own personal satellite. Later, he told us about his building a satellite tracker in his basement, he talked about holding workshops in his area to promote space education and personally owning a satellite, plus getting kids to take ownership of the technology, research, and data which inspires them with the projects, all of which is part of Do-It-Yourself-Space. Later, we talked about Australian space interests, the Australian space program, and space awareness in Australia. During the last few minutes of our two hour discussion, we talked space history, the Apollo program, the Parkes Radio Telescope, Honeysuckle Creek, the Challenger disaster, Robert’s leaving the industry and then his return to promote space education among kids. You can email Robert Brand at Robert.Brand@pluscomms.com

After you have listened, please post a comment on the following blog for The Space Show:

http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com/2011/11/02/robert-brand-tuesday-11-1-11/

UpLift-1 APRS Tracking (Archives)

APRS – The Best Balloon Tracking Solution

There are many ways to track balloons. There is the Radiosonde, Mobile Phone (3G), HAM radio APRS and many more. Since I both work in Radio Telecommunications and I am a HAM radio operator (VK2URB), then it is an easy choice. The amateur radio APRS system is ideal.

So what are these systems in brief:

Radiosonde: Wikipedia says: “A radiosonde (Sonde is French for probe) is a unit for use in weather balloons that measures various atmospheric parameters and transmits them to a fixed receiver. Radiosondes may operate at a radio frequency of 403 MHz or 1680 MHz and both types may be adjusted slightly higher or lower as required.” This sounds more like a license is required and special Radiosonde equipment is needed.

GPS enabled mobile / cellular smart phones: We all know what these are, but do they work?. Firstly you had better hope that your payload drops in a coverage area. These work by sending an SMS to the phone on the balloon and it then relays its position back to you via another SMS. Mobile telephone coverage in rural areas might not allow you to get a fix on the balloon as it parachutes back to earth. There is also the issue of the GPS receiver. Most do not work at heights over 60,000 feet (20kms) and thus you do not know how high it got or when it is descending. Many people on a tight budget try to use cellular phones and many have great success.

UHF Tracking: Similar to Radiosonde, yet it operates on a low power UHF channel, often used for garage door openers, etc. It transmits the co-ordinates for the GPS location and must be tracked by radios especially set up to receive the transmissions. The data is often ported to the internet for display on a web page. Handheld yagi antennas are directional and look like UHF yagi TV antennas seen on rooftops and are used to track the payload when it is on the ground or in the air.

APRS_TestTrackHAM Radio APRS:This is the choice that I feel best suits the situation and given that I already have a HAM license, then I do not have to ask others to help. What is APRS?: Wikipedia says: Automatic Packet Reporting System (APRS) is an amateur radio-based system for real time tactical digital communications of information of immediate value in the local area. In addition, all such data is ingested into the APRS Internet system (APRS-IS) and distributed globally for ubiquitous and immediate access. Along with messages, alerts, announcements and bulletins, the most visible aspect of APRS is its map display. Anyone may place any object or information on his or her map, and it is distributed to all maps of all users in the local RF network or monitoring the area via the Internet. Any station, radio or object that has an attached GPS is automatically tracked. Other prominent map features are weather stations, alerts and objects and other map-related amateur radio volunteer activities including Search and Rescue and signal direction finding. APRS has been developed since the late 1980s by Bob Bruninga, call sign WB4APR, currently a senior research engineer at the United States Naval Academy. He still maintains the main APRS website. The acronym “APRS” was derived from his callsign.

Note the unusual off-white unit connected with wires in the top picture – it is the special high altitude GPS receiver. It will work up to very high altitudes but sacrifices some accuracy.

The picture above is the APRS Test Track around a street block on a hill near my home. Not precise, but very close. I was shaking the thing as I walked to make it hard for the system. I walked counter / anti clockwise from near the top without shaking and then where it goes a funny in the last quarter of the short walk I was really shaking it wildly. The unit reports on many details. These are:

VK2URB-11 is the balloon call sign

2011-09-10 02:59:41z is the date and time in GMT/Zulu

7 km/h was my walking speed

248 degrees was my bearing

alt 80m was my height above sea level

05.8v was the tracker battery voltage

20C was the temperature – about 70F

The other data is pressure, HHMMSS, and number of GPS satellites, the digipeater used (if used) and the iGate used.

Agilant systems APRS transmitter for balloonsPluses and Minuses

APRS is could always be better and there are not too many iGates (APRS gateways into the Internet) in rural areas, so you must check first. In fact I have chosen to have my balloon drop near Parkes for that very reason. There is an iGate in Parkes and the Digipeater (digital repeater) at nearby Mt Canobolas will also pick up the transmissions from my balloon. I have also chosen an area for good 3Gcellular coverage to assist with tracking and maps. Just to be sure, I will have a digipeater in my car so that if I am not too far away the position will be relayed by my car to the Internet for easy tracking. The unit I have chosen is specifically bought for ballooning. It is from Argent Data in the US. The unit weighs only 160 grams (5.6 ounces). It transmits half a watt (500mW). It is pictured top right and is a pre-release model.

The next issue is finding it when on the ground. Radiosonde and APRS are well suited to this task, but the APRS has a few tricks up it’s sleeve. Fist it might be able to radio its GPS co-ordinates to the Internet tracking system. As I get close with the digipeater, it will also do that job if no other iGates are in range. Secondly it may be picked up directly by my handheld radio, nice, but since it only transmits for 1-2 seconds, it will be hard to get a fix on the unit. Finally I can decode the data with my iPhone and simple read its exact co-ordinates. Nice! That is the directly decoded packets on the right. I did the test inside my house so the GPS coordinates will not be seen.

On the minus side, there is the need for an amateur radio license and access to the expense and homemade equipment that is either out of reach of some people financially or technically.

I also replaced the long general purpose whip antenna that you can see on the top image with a highly tuned light weight dipole. It is made of hollow brass and this also makes it easy to slide some stiff wire inside the antenna for tuning. The wire was then soldered in place to get the tuning very precise. This maximizes the antenna’s radiation ability at the precise frequency of the APRS system. We are using VHF at 145.175MHz. The pictures below show the modification. The work was done by my good friend Bruce who I have worked with on and off for over 40 years. He is also an amateur radio operator (VK2ZZM) and I am very appreciative of his advice and help on the APRS side of this project.

APRS Transmitter dipole antenna

The white Styrofoam under the unit is the lid of the UpLift-1 capsule. The antenna is mounted on a small printed circuit board, The copper wire is used to add strength to the copper on the board in case of mechanical failure that may make the copper peel from the board.

APRS Tracker with dipole antenna - back

The rear side above showing the bolts that pass through to the battery mounts on the tracker unit. A small amount of “locktight” was placed on the nuts to make sure that mechanical vibration did not make them fall off.

Spectrum / Network Analyser tuning the APRS tracker Dipole antenna

This is a state of the art network analyzer. It is measuring Return Loss. Send a signal to the antenna and what is not radiated comes back. The dip means that it is tuned to the frequency and radiating well. It is right on the tracker frequency. The Marker frequency. It is perfectly tuned and radiating the signal – not much is being reflected back into the cable. It is best practice as far as radio is concerned.

I will post a link to the tracker website that I will be using just before the day, but this link will let you see the few test drives that I have done in Sydney: http://aprs.fi/

 

UpLift-1 Science Questions (Archives)

Balloon Testing UpLift-1InnerwestCourier 20111110_p07*** Recovered From Archives ***

Students get Busy with UpLift-1

We are now well engaged with one Primary School and a 3 campus college. We are hoping for more schools to come on board, but so far the results are more than satisfying.

The senior students at Leichhardt Primary School in Sydney are having a naming contest for the capsule. Y3-6 will be involved and the teachers will pick the winning student. Their picture will be placed in the capsule and sent skyward.

The students at Sydney Secondary College’s Blackwattle Bay campus have already begun to build the capsule and have participated in a workshop with me. They have also been doing some science experiments to test the materials that we will be using. More on that below.

The students at Sydney Secondary College’s Leichhardt campus will meet with me shortly for their first workshop.

The workshop outline the mission and allow students to begin with science experiments to find out what will happen during the flight and what might cause problems.

The experiments that have already been conducted at Blackwattle Bay are:

  • Testing bubble wrap at 1/100th the sea level air pressure (our thermal payload blanket)
  • Testing Styrofoam for slow decompression (for a 2 hour ascent) and then a more rapid compression (over a 30 minutes descent).
  • Testing a jig and hot wire cutter for the Styrofoam for the capsule
  • Testing a suitable glue for Styrofoam

These high school students will be making up our mission team and the Leichhardt campus will be holding a special science workshop during the morning so that student swill be able to monitor the progress of the flight and doing the science experiments on the day. There will be discussions on the tracking system and returned data. They will also get video updates on the mission before and during the flight.

I would encourage students to estimate the burst altitude from information available on the web for a Kaymont 350 gram balloon from Totex and the conditions on the day. Lower temperatures will keep the balloon aloft longer.

UpLift Weather Balloon Series (Archives)

Balloon*** Recovered From Archives ***

Posted By On 22 Aug 2011.
My name is Robert Brand and I am involved in space missions and Balloon Flights to the upper atmosphere. I don’t just read the space news and I like doing things, so Do-It-Yourself (DIY) Space was a natural. Unfortunately high altitude weather balloons don’t get into space, but they do get a long way up. Many make it over 20 miles / 30 kms and the atmosphere is so thing that it is getting close to space. My son Jason (age 9) will also be a big part of tracking and recovering the craft

The UpLift series is a record of my personal weather balloon launches in Blog form. Here you will find everything that you ever wanted to know about high altitude balloon flights, but in more of a blog form – I simply do not have the time to make it a reference site. I will try and not miss anything important and I expect that for the Australian enthusiast, there will be enough detail to even know how to approach CASA (Australia’s Civil Aviation Safety Authority) for a permit to fly. Some flights may occur outside of Australia, but if they are launches instigated by me, they will still carry the name.

The series will be numerically numbered so UpLift-1 is the first flight.

The flights will normally originate from a point in central New South Wales (NSW). They will use amateur radio tracking and where possible they will involve schools and other educational opportunities. They will carry as much scientific payload as possible and the data will be available on these pages. This will include full flight information, time, height, atmospheric pressure, etc as well as photos and videos.